The adequate feeding of an ingot is accomplished by the use of a Hot-Top (feeder head) assembly
coupled with a suitable anti-piping compound cover. The former prevents lateral heat losses
of the feed material to the mold wall, and the latter minimizes the otherwise substantial heat losses
to the atmosphere. This combination allows the required liquid reservoir of molten metal to feed the
body of the ingot as solidification/liquid contraction occurs during the cooling period.
Cap Boards, placed on top of the molten metal as it rises up the ingot mold during casting, are an
alternative to more traditional anti-piping hot topping powders. In operation, a Cap Board will expand
from 3 to 5 times its original volume to form an insulating powder which protects the peripheral edge
gaps of the ingot surface.
Protects the ingot from oxidation.
Absorbs detrimental inclusions.
Consistency in material makeup eliminates the possibility of ingredient segregation.
Immediate coverage of the riser as it enters the riser cavity.
Improved hygiene, as the dust and associated toxicity resulting from the application of powdered compounds is avoided.
Uniform, consistent coverage is achieved.
Peripheral edge gaps are covered, as the Cap Board expands during the exothermic reaction.
Cost competitive with powders, particularly with larger ingots.